Achalasia cardia is a rare motility disorder of the esophagus involving smooth muscles and lower esophageal sphincter. It is also termed as esophageal aperistalsis, cardiospasm, and esophageal achalasia.
Failure of relaxation of smooth muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter due to defect either in nerves or the musculature leads to incomplete relaxation of the sphincter and no peristalsis.
Achalasia cardia usually presents in adulthood and is very rare among children. Most of the cases are idiopathic and have no underlying cause associated.